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Species Distribution Modeling of Endangered Mammals for Ecosystem Services Valuation

The provided habitat of many services from natural capital is important. But because most
ecosystem services tools qualitatively evaluated biodiversity or habitat quality, this study quantitatively
analyzed those aspects using the species distribution model (MaxEnt). This study used location point data
of the goat(Naemorhedus caudatus), marten(Martes flavigula), leopard cat(Prionailurus bengalensis),
flying squirrel(Pteromys volans aluco) and otter(Lutra lutra) from the 3rd National Ecosystem Survey.
Input data utilized DEM, landcover classification maps, Forest-types map and digital topographic
maps. This study generated the MaxEnt model, randomly setting 70% of the presences as training
data, with the remaining 30% used as test data, and ran five cross-validated replicates for each model.
The threshold indicating maximum training sensitivity plus specificity was considered as a more
robust approach, so this study used it to conduct the distribution into presence(1)-absence(0)
predictions and totalled up a value of 5 times for uncertainty reduction. The test data's ROC curve of
endangered mammals was as follows: growing down goat(0.896), otter(0.857), flying squirrel(0.738),
marten(0.725), and leopard cat(0.629). This study was divided into two groups based on habitat: the
first group consisted of the goat, marten, leopard cat and flying squirrel in the forest; and the second
group consisted of the otter in the river. More than 60 percent of endangered mammals' distribution
probability were 56.9% in the forest and 12.7% in the river. A future study is needed to conduct other
species' distribution modeling exclusive of mammals and to develop a collection method of field
survey data.